By Hadrat Mawlānā Muhammad Saleem Dhorat hafizahullāh
Virtues Of Udhiyah [Qurbānī]
• Udhiyah (sacrifice) is a practice commanded by Allāh ta‘ālā:
… So turn in prayer towards your Lord and sacrifice (animals). (108:2)
• There is nothing dearer to Allāh ta‘ālā (Our Creator) during the days of udhiyah than the sacrificing of animals. The sacrificed animal shall come on the Day of Judgement with its horns, hair, and hooves (to be weighed). The sacrifice is accepted by Allāh ta‘ālā before the blood reaches the ground. Therefore, sacrifice with an open and happy heart. (At-Tirmidhī, Ibn Mājah)
• Zayd ibn Arqam radhiyallāhu ‘anhu relates that the Companions radhiyallāhu ‘anhum asked, “O Rasūlullāh! (O Messenger!) What is udhiyah?” He replied, “It is the sunnah of your father Ibrāhīm ‘alayhis salām.” They asked again, “What benefit do we get from it?” He answered, “A reward for every hair (of the sacrificed animal).” “And (what reward is there for animals with) wool, O Rasūlullāh?” they asked. “A reward”, he said, “for every fibre of the wool.” (Ibn Mājah)
• When a person slaughters an udhiyah animal, he is forgiven at the fall of the first drop of blood, and verily, the animal shall be brought forward on the Day of Judgement with its blood, meat etc., and shall be increased in weight seventy times more than its own weight, and thereafter it will be placed on the scale of deeds. (Kanz-al-‘Ummāl)
On Whom is Udhiyah Wājib?
• Udhiyah is wājib (compulsory) on every Muslim who is of sound mind, mature (who has reached the age of puberty), muqīm (i.e. he is not a Shar‘ī traveller) and possesses the amount of fifty two and half tolas of silver (612.36 grams) or wealth equivalent to that value which is in excess of one’s aslī (basic) needs. It is not necessary that this amount be in one’s possession for a complete lunar year. It’s possession during the three days of udhiyah will make udhiyah obligatory. Udhiyah is not incumbent on a child or an insane person whether they own wealth equivalent to the amount above or not, nor is it wājib upon their guardians to perform it on their behalf. Similarly, it is not wājib on a Shar‘ī traveller.
NOTE: A Shar‘ī traveller is he who goes on a journey with an intention of travelling forty eight miles. He will be treated as a traveller as soon as he goes out of his town.
• It is highly virtuous for one on whom udhiyah is not wājib to offer sacrifice for the Pleasure of Allāh ta‘ālā. He will be eligible for all the reward mentioned in the ahādīth.
• During the days of udhiyah, sadaqah and charity cannot compensate for udhiyah nor fulfil the wājib. Udhiyah is a unique ‘ibādah. Just as zakāh cannot compensate for hajj, or sawm (fasting) cannot compensate for salāh, similarly charity cannot compensate for udhiyah. However, if the days of udhiyah had passed, and the udhiyah was not offered despite being obligatory due to not knowing, negligence or for some other reason, then it becomes wājib to give in sadaqah the price of udhiyah animal or the animal itself to the poor.
• If a traveller returned home or a person acquired the required wealth on the 12th of Dhul-Hijjah before sunset, it will be wājib upon him to perform udhiyah.
• A traveller who makes an intention of staying at a certain place for fifteen days or more, no longer remains a traveller. He must offer udhiyah if he possesses the prescribed amount.
Days of Udhiyah
• The days of udhiyah are the tenth, eleventh and twelfth of Dhul-Hijjah. The first day is better than the second, and the second better than the last.
Time for Udhiyah
• In towns and cities where Jumu‘ah and ‘Īd are performed, Udhiyah is not permissible before the ‘Īd salāh. If the Udhiyah has been offered before the ‘Īd salāh, it will have to be repeated. Therefore, the time for udhiyah commences after ‘Īd salāh on 10th Dhul-Hijjah until before the sunset of 12th Dhul-Hijjah.
• It is permissible, but not preferable to perform udhiyah at night.
The Udhiyah Animal
• It is permissible to offer in sacrifice a goat or she-goat, sheep of all kinds, cow, bull, buffalo or camel.
• It is necessary that the goat is one (full) year old, whether male or female. A cow, bull or buffalo will have to be two years old, and a camel five years. Animals that are younger are not suitable for udhiyah.
• A sheep (of any kind) not less than six months old, so strong and fat that it appears to be one year old will suffice for udhiyah, otherwise it will have to be one (full) year old.
• A cow, bull, buffalo or camel will suffice for seven persons provided no one’s share is less than one seventh and the niyyah (intention) of all partners is to attain thawāb (for udhiyah), and not merely to obtain meat.
• The udhiyah of only one person can be performed from a goat, sheep or ram.
• If an animal seller says that the animal has reached the required age, and outwardly there is no sign to disprove it, then it is permissible to rely on his statement.
• Animals that are castrated can be used for udhiyah. In fact this type of animal is preferable.
• The following cannot be used for udhiyah:
Animals that are blind, one-eyed or have lost one-third or more of their eyesight.
Animals that have lost a third of the ear or the tail. Similarly, the animal which has no ear from birth.
An animal whose horn has been broken off from the root.
An animal which has one leg lame to the extent that it walks on three legs only and is unable to use the fourth leg.
An animal so lean and thin that its bones have no marrow.
An animal so weak that it cannot walk to the place of slaughtering on its own.
An animal completely toothless or one that has lost most of its teeth.
• It is virtuous to purchase the animal for udhiyah a few days prior to slaughtering and care must be taken in feeding and nursing it.
Masnūn Method of Sacrifice
• It is more virtuous to slaughter the animal with one’s own hands. If one does not know how to slaughter, it is preferred that he remain present while someone else is sacrificing the animal. It is not necessary to make the niyyah (intention) of udhiyah with the tongue, however it is necessary to say ‘Bismillāhi Allāhu Akbar’ when slaughtering.
• Use a sharp knife and slaughter the animal quickly so that it does not suffer.
• Do not sharpen the knife in front of the animal.
• After slaughtering, do not skin the animal before it becomes completely cold.
• Do not slaughter one animal in the presence of another.
• It is mustahab (desirable) for one who intends to perform udhiyah to refrain from cutting hair or clipping nails from 1st Dhul-Hijjah to 10th Dhul-Hijjah, (i.e. until after udhiyah).
The Udhiyah Meat and Skin
• It is permissible to eat the udhiyah meat. It can also be distributed to relatives and friends, whether wealthy or poor, Muslims or non-Muslims. It is better to divide it into three parts: one for the family, one for relatives and friends and one for the poor and needy.
• The skin of the udhiyah animal can be kept for personal use, e.g. using it as a prayer-mat, water bag etc.
• If the skin of the udhiyah animal is sold, then it is wājib to give that amount in sadaqah to the poor (i.e. those who are eligible for zakāh).
• It is not permissible to give meat, fat, etc. of the sacrificed animal to the butcher as his wages.
• The meat of the animal slaughtered by partners should be shared by weight and not by estimation.
• The rope, cover, etc. of the animal should be given away as sadaqah.
Udhiyah On Behalf Of The Deceased
If one has been favoured by Allāh ta‘ālā with wealth, then he should also perform udhiyah on behalf of Rasūlullāh sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam, his Sahābah radhiyallāhu ‘anhum, his Ummah, the Prophets ‘alayhimus salām and for his own living or deceased relatives, friends and teachers who have conveyed Dīnī knowledge.
One should always remember and never overlook our beloved Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam and perform udhiyah on his behalf. Abū Talhah radhiyallāhu ‘anhu has related that the Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam sacrificed one ram and while sacrificing another he said, “This is on behalf of every one of my Ummah who believed in me and testified (to my prophethood).” (At-Tabrānī)
It is a matter for deep thought and consideration that the Prophet sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam kept his Ummah in his mind while offering the sacrifice and it is deplorable for the Ummah not to remember him at the time of udhiyah.
© Islāmic Da’wah Academy – https://jamiat.org.za/udhiyah-qurbani/